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Custody of My Dog: Protecting Pet Owner’s Rights

Updated: Sep 14, 2023


When a relationship ends, whether it's a divorce or a separation between partners or roommates, the issue of pet custody can add an extra layer of emotional stress. Pets are often regarded as family members, and determining who gets to keep the beloved dog can become a contentious matter. While the law still largely considers pets as personal property, there are ways to protect your rights and ensure the best interests of your furry friend are taken into account. In this article, we will explore the topic of pet custody, discuss the existing laws, and provide guidance on how to navigate this challenging situation.

Pet Custody Laws: Understanding the Current Landscape

In most states, Massachusetts included, pets are legally considered personal property, similar to your belongings or household items. However, there have been significant developments in recognizing the importance of pets and considering their well-being when it comes to custody disputes. While progress is being made, it's important to note that many states still adhere to the traditional view of pets as property.

Establishing Pet Custody: Taking Proactive Measures

To avoid potential disputes and protect your pet's custody, it's advisable to establish a pet custody agreement before any separation occurs. This agreement functions similarly to a prenuptial agreement, setting out the terms and conditions regarding the ownership and care of the pet. Having a legally enforceable agreement in place can provide clarity and prevent unnecessary conflicts when emotions run high.

In states where pets are considered personal property (like Massachusetts), and if no pet custody agreement exists, you will need to present compelling evidence to support your claim for custody. Factors that may be considered by the court include:

  • The party who originally adopted or purchased the pet, is supported by relevant receipts.

  • Whether the pet was acquired before the marriage or partnership commenced.

  • The presence of children who have formed attachments to the pet and their living arrangements.

  • Responsible for daily care activities such as feeding, walking, and veterinary visits.

  • Financial obligations related to the pet, including bills and expenses.

  • Suitable living conditions for the pet, including space and access to a backyard (in the case of a dog).

  • Compatibility with any potential housing restrictions or limitations due to apartment rules or regulations.

  • Availability of time to spend with the pet based on work schedules.

  • The bond and emotional attachment between the pet and each party involved.

  • Instances of animal cruelty or neglect by either party.

Keeping Pet Custody Out of Court: Alternative Approaches

Avoiding a court battle over pet custody is often preferable, as it can be a lengthy and emotionally draining process. Instead, consider the following alternatives:

Joint Custody & Visitation Agreements

A top priority should be to see if the parties can resolve these issues themselves. That is often preferable, and in many cases is how parties first attempt to share custody. The goal of joint custody and visitation should be to provide both parties an opportunity to maintain a strong bond with the pet while ensuring the pet’s well-being and stability. It is important to approach these agreements with a cooperative mindset and prioritize what is best for the pet at all times. Some key considerations for visitation or joint custody agreements include:

  • Establish a regular visitation schedule: Determine a specific schedule for the non-custodial party to spend time with the pet, including weekends, holidays, and vacations. Clearly outline the dates, times, and duration of each visitation period.

  • Define the visitation location: Specify where the visits will take place, whether it's at the custodial party's residence, the non-custodial party's home, or in a neutral location. Consider factors such as the pet's comfort and familiarity with the environment.

  • Determine transportation arrangements: Determine how the pet will be transported between the custodial and non-custodial party's residences. Address issues such as who will bear the cost of transportation and how the handover process will be managed to minimize stress for the pet.

  • Communication guidelines: Establish guidelines for communication between the parties regarding the pet. This can include sharing updates on the pet's health, behavior, and any significant events. Determine preferred modes of communication, such as phone calls, text messages, or email.

  • Financial responsibilities: Clarify each party's financial responsibilities related to the pet's visitation. This may include costs associated with food, grooming, veterinary care, and any other expenses incurred during the visitation period.

  • Handling emergencies: Discuss how emergencies or unexpected situations involving the pet will be handled during visitation. Determine how decisions regarding the pet's health and well-being will be made and establish a protocol for contacting each party in case of emergencies.

  • Flexibility and modification: Allow for flexibility in the visitation agreement to accommodate changes in circumstances, such as work schedules, travel, or other unforeseen events. Establish a process for modifying the visitation agreement if necessary, with both parties agreeing to any changes in writing.

  • Dispute resolution: Include a mechanism for resolving disputes that may arise during visitation, such as mediation or arbitration. This ensures that conflicts can be addressed in a peaceful and fair manner without causing undue stress to the pet.

Mediation or Arbitration

Opting for mediation or arbitration can provide a neutral platform for parties to reach a mutually agreeable resolution. These alternative dispute resolution methods allow for open communication and negotiation, helping to find a fair compromise that considers the welfare of the pet.

Protecting Your Pet Custody Rights: Essential Considerations

In cases where the pet was acquired by your spouse before marriage, establishing custody can be more challenging. While the law may favor the original owner, certain circumstances can still lead to a different outcome.

  • Documentation: Gather any documentation that proves your involvement in the care and well-being of your pet. This can include veterinary records, receipts for pet-related expenses, photographs of you and your pet together, and any other evidence that showcases your commitment and bond with the animal.

  • Witnesses: If possible, obtain statements or testimonies from friends, family members, neighbors, or anyone who can attest to your role as the primary caregiver for the pet. Their statements can strengthen your case and provide additional support for your custody claim.

  • Professional Evaluations: In some cases, it may be helpful to involve professionals, such as veterinarians, trainers, or animal behaviorists, who can assess the living conditions and quality of care provided by each party. Their expert opinions can carry weight in court and contribute to a favorable custody decision.

  • Focus on the Best Interests of the Pet: When presenting your case, emphasize the well-being and best interests of the pet. Show that you can provide a stable and loving environment, with the necessary resources, time, and commitment to meet the pet's physical and emotional needs.

  • Consult with an Attorney: If you anticipate a contentious custody dispute or are unsure about your legal rights, it's advisable to consult with a family law attorney who specializes in pet custody cases. They can provide guidance, help you understand the specific laws in your jurisdiction, and advocate for your rights in court if necessary.


While the legal framework surrounding pet custody is still evolving, it's important to approach the issue with care and consideration for your pet's well-being. By taking proactive measures, such as establishing a pet custody agreement or gathering supporting evidence, you can better protect your rights and increase the chances of a favorable custody outcome. Always remember that pets are sensitive beings, and their well-being should be given the utmost importance during these challenging times.

The primary focus should always be on what is in the best interests of your beloved pet. Keeping their needs at the forefront and maintaining open communication with the other party can help reach a resolution that prioritizes their welfare. In cases where an amicable agreement cannot be reached, consulting with an attorney and relying on the legal system may be necessary to ensure a fair and just outcome for both you and your furry companion.

One of the most rewarding moments at Boston Dog Lawyers is when we recover a pet for our client after they were told they’d never see him or her again. These cases always involve significant effort and advocacy, but BDL answers the call to meet our client’s most urgent needs involving their beloved pets.

The information provided in this article is for educational purposes only and should not be considered legal advice.

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